Circumcision is a surgical operation that removes some skin or tissue from the genitals of a boy.
Circumcision is a simple procedure that removes the foreskin- a sleeve of skin covering the tip of the penis.
Parents have the legal right to authorise circumcision. In order to make an informed decision, they must carefully consider the benefits and risks.
Since the foreskin traps bacteria and other infectious agents, as well as accumulating malodorous smegma, its removal improves genital hygiene and reduces risk of diseases and other conditions over the lifetime for the boy and his future sexual life and partners.
Male sterilisation, or vasectomy, is a form of surgical contraception that involves cutting and
tying the 2 tubes (each called a vas deferens), that carry sperm from the testes (testicles) to the penis.
Semen is produced in the seminal vesicles and prostate, which are unaffected by a vasectomy. The amount of seminal fluid is not affected.
The sperm, which are still produced by the testicles but can’t travel along each of the tied vas deferens, are reabsorbed by the body.
Male sterilisation is greater than 99 per cent effective at preventing pregnancy. It should be regarded as a permanent form of
contraception, as it is difficult to reverse the surgical procedure.
Haemorrhoids are a very common anal disease when formed on the upper and lower sides of the dentate line.
Internal haemorrhoids are the most common, the symptoms of which include haemorrhage and prolapse.
Internal haemorrhoids are resolved in part by conservative treatments with suppositories and ointments, in addition to lifestyle improvements and the avoidance of straining on defecation; however, subsequent treatments may be necessary when symptoms become aggravated and interfere with daily living activities.
The treatment of haemorrhoids without resection is desirable because internal haemorrhoids are mostly benign.
Sclerotherapy might be considered as a treatment for grade 1 or grade 2 haemorrhoids. In this procedure, a proctoscope is gently inserted into the anus.
The aim of this procedure is to shrink the haemorrhoids by damaging blood vessels and reducing the blood supply to the haemorrhoids.
With the excision and the removal, or the repositioning (or both) of excess tissues, such as skin and adipocyte fat, and the reinforcement of the corresponding muscle and tendon tissues, the blepharoplasty procedure resolves functional and cosmetic problems of the periorbita,